Way back at the dawn of time (well in the 1920s) it was discovered that extinct Mammoth elephants and an extinct species of hippopotamus were frozen in the Siberian icesoil mixture known as permafrost. These creatures were extremely well preserved and a couple were autopsied. It was discovered that these creatures not only had intact and undigested stomach contents, but also that they were killed so quickly that some still had food in their throats. This food consisted of subtropical plants, similar plants today are found in hot places like India and North Africa. The animals had frozen so fast that the plants had no chance to decay, and the stomach contents had yet to be digested. Expert estimates suggest a freeze time of 2-4 hours between the animals death and the freezing of the plant material in the throat (note NOT the freezing of the whole animal as some sources suggest).
A number of people including a relatively unknown scientist called Albert Einstein, decided that the only way this could happen is if the crust of the earth suddenly rotated by an angle of about forty degrees. This theory was not well received and was called Crustal Slip. See the diagram at left, the crust is the thin layer on the top.
This theory was totally discredited in the age of deep drilling for oil when it was realized due to advances in the science of seismology and plate tectonics that the Outer Mantle which the crust sits on is extremely viscous and sticky, allowing only very slow movement.
Crustal Slip is Back from the Dead!Well hold onto your seats folks. Thanks to surveys of historic movements of the poles, and our new even more advanced science of seismology this theory is now back with a twist. Its not just the crust that slips but the entire mantle of the Earth!
Earths Mantle SlipsRecent seismological discoveries have revealed more about the structure of the inner and outer core. The inner core consists of huge crystals of nickel/iron which are oriented North-South. The inner core is known also to be rotating at a faster speed than the rest of the Earth by about 0.6 seconds a day. The Outer core consists mostly of heavier metals which have lower melting points and are liquid, the viscosity of this material is close to that of water due to the extreme temperature and pressure.
What this means is that it is perfectly feasible that if the weight of the crust were unbalanced enough then the crust and the mantle could rotate together with respect to the earths core. The low viscosity of the outer core also means that this could occur quite quickly.
Lets do some rough Sums on Mantle SlippageIf we take the outside time above for the freezing of food in the Mammoth throat to be 4 hours this gives us a time. Now we need a distance.If we say that approx 30 degrees north is the furthest north these plants could have grown, and that freezing temperatures would be encountered at 60 degrees North then this gives us an angle of 30 degrees assuming straight line movement north-south. This is 1/12 the pole to pole circumference of the earth or 24589/12 = 2049 miles. An AVERAGE speed is needed of 512 miles per hour to do this. In reality its probable that the acceleration was slow and the plants did not have time to die before the animals ate them. We do know its likely that the motion stopped with a jerk though because the animals all had multiple broken bones.
So lets assume the fast slip was between the center of Britain at around 55 degrees and our sixty degrees limit. This is five degrees slippage or 24589/72 = 341 miles or 85.3 miles per hour, a far more reasonable figure.
Were this to happen today what would survive in the way of buildings? Nothing over one story high thats for sure. The worst thing however would be the oceans. Try moving a cup of water fast and then stopping it quickly. It slops. That is exactly what would happen to the ocean. We cannot call it a tsunami because its not simply the weight of of a wave coming, its the weight of an entire ocean!
Everything anywhere less than 500m above sea level within 150 miles or so of whatever angle of coastline was affected (remember this is directional) will be scrubbed back to bedrock, the sediments will then settle, buildings and cars and rock first followed be 30-50 meters of soil and then ten meters of fine silt. Perhaps this is why we cannot find any ancient civilizations, we are simply not looking deep enough.
... /personal/famelung/Inverse_Theory/... ... Crustal Poleshifts: Hapgood and Bowles ... worked on his theory of earth crust displacement - an update of Hugh Auchincloss
... Brown's theory that the entire planet has previously capsized. Brown's theory
... planet over. He believed that only the crust shifted.Crustal
... continued to work on his theory, with a major update being published in 1970,
... us a straightforward, easy to grasp theory on how the crust can shift.
... then one day something must give, slip or break. Everything that suffers stress
... and the cargo slips and slides, then damage can occur. The
... if the standard continental drift model remains in use. The R-B Effect theory
... this is what happens to the earth when the crust slips - it breaks away, and then
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... Theory ... The more I consider Hapgood's theory and the huge ... Unifying Theory much like what Physics is searching for. A very ... Subject: fact, hypothesis, theory ... fact vs. theory. This is a topic near and dear to my heart, a topic I ... educational premise of constructivist theory, one in which we ... be remembered... fact, theory, etc. all jumbled together. Over the ... in their textbook isn't fact,but hypothesis, theory and concepts.... ... explains the sudden onset and retreat of ice ages through a theory of ... crustal displacements. However, there are problems in the theory. The ... aligned in an easterly direction today? Crustal displacement of the ... Hapgood's theories of crustal displacement actually help date the ... slippage of the earth's crust. It's a way of partially explaining a ... Subject: comments re; Hapgood's theory ... disappointed to learn that Hapgood revised his theory to slow-time ... personall feelings, I would like to hear what you think of my theory? ... BREIFLY MY THEORY GOES LIKE THIS: THE EARTH AS A ... - we have an axe to grind or pet theory to push. and those change ... slippage" ... to reply to your email regarding "hot spots". I say that crustal ... slippage and hot spots arecompatible with each other. Let a hot spot ... tectonic plate. In essence, after a crustal shift, new magma would ... continue to rise thru the hot spot. No conflict in theories. Crustal ... slippage and continental drift are also compatible. As the tectonic ... each other via continental drift. A crustal slippage is a sudden ... crustal shift (geological, agricultural, historical, mathematical, ... earth off kilter. These are the best possible causes of a crustal ... Subject: crustal slippage Date: Mon, 14 Feb 2000 21:27:45 ... I don't believe that rapid crustal slippage has ... I have recently become intrigued with this theory ... "supposed" to be able do such things. I have a theory that coincides ... with Mr. Hapgoods theory of polar shifts. Taking into consideration ... The problem with this theory is to trace back these meteorites. Since ... I was initially interested in Crustal Shift ... crustal slip theory, this is because the Hawaiian islands for example ... My theory on this subject is fairly simple. Proof ... theory. The ice sheets get off balance and pull the poles to the ... ideas. His theory on thecause of Noah's flood was caused by the ... theory can answer all the questions on pole-shifts. ... Theory way past what Velikosky started. Patten has proved that Mars ... that, he mentioned the theory of crust displacement in one chapter ... pro by any means. But the theory,basically, makes perfect sense. ... that's my "naive" opinion of the theory. ... 'the first truly scientific exploration of my theory' after he had ... promoting his theory that the iceage(s) were caused by meteorite ... convergent plate boundary: crustal generation and destruction
Three-dimensional diagram showing crustal generation and destruction according to the theory of plate tectonics; included are the three kinds of plate boundaries—divergent, convergent (or collision), and strike-slip (or transform).Credit: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
FIGURE 1 Location of geodetic sites occupied in 1993 1995 and 1997 in which horizontal velocities have been estimated The vector velocities of sites with 1 sigma errors in thecrustal grey jpgO2 location map 625x450 jpgTwo types Continental higher elevation more evolved Oceanic lower elevation forms from melting mantle rocks Bimodal distribution of elevations on earthis a reflection of the two types of crustcrustal wolfages Clicking on the map below will enable you to view and download the original digital map of ocean floor ages from the NGDC National Geophysical Data Centercrustalthickness jpgClick on thumbnail for bigger 60k image Each arrow in the model represents the velocity at which that point on the ground is moving It shows how far the point moves relative to the+ View Full Size ScreenshotRed contour lines indicate the magnitude of postglacial rebound in meters3 4 Modeling crustal thickness NA world histograms n central MT anomaliesof Upper Volta on the African continent is overshadowed by another contemporary stone namely that of the famous Gao Guenie shower whose collective rain still dampens collections worldwidecrustal CrossSectionLG jpg+ View Full Size Screenshot+ View Full Size ImageView Original Image at Full Size A selection of crustal growth models presented by various authorsthe correct general pattern of crustal thickening An unexpected but encouraging result is that predicted principal compression directions are orthogonal to many Laramide basement upliftsCrustal displacement and tiltWorldCrustalAge gif 563 95 KBEarth s lithosphere Animation Source Map of Crustal ThicknessTheir concept was that the Sun somehow extruded a cometary tail from which gases cooled and condensed with the condensation forming the planets satellites moons meteor streams etcNagyobb felbontás Higher resolution Kéregvastagság Crustal thickness Nagyobb felbontás Higher resolutionCrustal Shortening in Pamir bmppersonnel from the Geological Sciences Department at UCSB Following the oral portion of the presentation PBIC instrumentation is used to demonstrate modern data acquisition systems Marc Kammerling uses brownies and jello to demonstrate the differences in soil characteristics The best part is that the kids get to eat the model when they are doneSouthern California Two Color EDM Networks Four EDM networks located in Southern California show strain accumulation on the San Andreas fault system in this region This map shows the locations of 4 two color EDM Electronic Distance Meter networks in Southern California These networks are radial with approximately 12 baselines using a common centralcrustal structure s urals jpgGRC 2006 poster jpgcrustal thickness km of EarthIf you are viewing this page with Microsoft s Internet Explorer you might not have noticed that many of the pictures here will enlarge if you click on themGlobal map of temperature distribution as measured by the Thermal Infrared Spectrometer TES during nightime on Mars 2 00 AM Temperature of a glowing object can be determined from theFigure 1 Present day crustal motion predicted by a computer model of postglacial rebound called ICE 3G Blue areas are sinking Peak uplift near James Bay is around 12 13 mm year Arrows showTectonic Movements and Earthquake Triggering Mechanism Plate Tectonics The tectonic history of the region shows that the Pacific plate moves in aBimodal distribution of elevations on earthis a reflection of the two types of crust Convection can occur in solids and does occur in the earth s mantle All plate motion is driven by convectioncrustal wolf jpgProblem 6 Answer questions using the image below Where can the oldest oceanic crust be found What is its age Compare this to the oldest age for continental crust from Australia and North America which are well over 3 5 billionranging from 2 5 km to 1 5 km gray area in Fig 3 F Difference between Kuriles where edge of overriding plate forearc is pulled down by slab and Calabria where it is decoupled Figure 3 Comparison between Hml curves across four studied subduction zones In Andes anomaly is weak andIf you are viewing this page with Microsoft s Internet Explorer you might not have noticed that many of the pictures here will enlarge if you click on themworking together they can create a crustal tide of only 4 5 inches A rational theory must provide for a massive uplifting force a crustal tide of thousands of feet not just a few inches A Common feature of these theories is their dependence upon gradualism In the parlance of geology the dogma of gradualism is called Uniformitarianism This eight syllable wordVelocity a GEONET GPS site velocities vel psCrustal thickness a jpg
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It has been suggested that approximately 12,000 years ago there was a displacement of the Earth's crust. The entire outer shell of the earth moved approximately 2,000 miles. When the Earth's crust shifted all of Antarctica was encapsulated by the polar zone. At the same time North American was His theory is based on the theory of Continental Drift - the continents of the earth have been slowly drifting apart over millions of years. This is possible because the outer crust of the Earth floats upon a semi-liquid layer. The theory of Crustal Displacement states that the entire crust of the Earth can shift in one piece like the lose skin of an orange.
Prof. Hapgood who created this theory documented three Earth crust displacements in the last 100,000 years. Some researchers believe that they happen every 41,000 years and that the last one happened 11,500 years ago. Hapgood believes that this cataclysmic shift is caused by imbalanced ice at the polar caps. Over time ice builds up at the poles reaching as much as two miles in thickness. from the Arctic Circle and became temperate.
Based primarily on that technical data, he argued that each shift took approximately five thousand years, followed by 20 to 30 thousand year periods with no polar movements. Also, in his calculations, the area of movement never covered more than 40 degrees. The presence of a truly liquid layer between the core and the outer crust would allow such slippage, moderated by inertial forces.
According to Graham Hancock Fingerprints of the Gods and Rand Flem-Ath, the solution is that the remains of this civilization lie buried beneath the Antarctic ice cap where it was destroyed and buried by Earth crustal displacement.
One such mystery is the myth of Atlantis and the question of its existence. Ignatius Donnelly’s 1882 book: Atlantis: The Antediluvian World (revised 1949) set the standard for 20th century Atlantean research, covering in his book Plato’s reports, biblical stories, and the myths of New World civilizations. However, until the work of the late history professor Charles H. Hapgood, Atlantean research was limited to mythological and scarce anthropological evidence. Hapgood provided a geologic theory, Earth Crust Displacement, which claims that a catastrophic shift of the earth’s lithosphere around 10,000 BC. resulted in the continent of Antarctica—Hapgood’s site for the lost continent of Atlantis—moving from a temperate latitude to its current polar position.
The geologic revolution that took place in the 1960s—namely the development of plate tectonics—seemed to remove Hapgood’s theory, which had never been taken seriously in academic circles, from the picture. However, Graham Hancock, a former correspondent for The Economist, revives Hapgood’s argument, presenting evidence in his book Fingerprints of the Gods that there did indeed exist an Atlantis, which was responsible for many of the unexplained connections between known ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians, Sumerians, and Aztecs. He proposes Earth Crust Displacement not as a replacement for plate tectonics, but as a supplement.
Although Hapgood’s theory of Earth Crust Displacement attempts to answer unsolved mysteries in cartography and archaeology through geologic means, the evidence for the theory itself is lacking in validity, and instead of providing a geologically sound addition to plate tectonics, the theory posed is riddled by logical and factual gaps.
It is well-known through continental drift and plate tectonics that the earth’s landmasses are not stationary, but form parts of large, independently moving crustal plates. This motion is, however, very slow by human terms, and the 30 degree shift proposed by Hapgood would take millions, if not hundreds of millions, of years to complete according to plate tectonics. In the 1950s, Hapgood developed a theory called Earth Crust Displacement (ECD) which could account the shift, and yet not contradict the theory of continental drift. The basic notion of ECD is that the earth’s lithosphere, although composed of individual plates, can at times move as a whole over the asthenosphere.
Hapgood claimed that towards the end of the last ice age, around 12,000 years ago, the extensive mass of glacial ice covering the northern continents caused the lithosphere to ‘slip’ over the asthenosphere, moving Antarctica, during a period of at most several centuries, from a position in the middle latitudes to its current location, and at the same time rotating the other continents. Antarctica’s movement to the polar region precipitated the development of its ice cap. Similarly, by shifting the northern ice sheets out of the arctic zone, the end of the ice age was facilitated.
Support for this theory was given in a forward by Albert Einstein to one of Hapgood’s books in 1953:
The claim is that the great build-up of ice in the northern hemisphere was not situated symmetrically, and that as the earth rotated on its axis, this imbalance caused the lithosphere to ‘slip’ catastrophically, as Hancock states: “much as the skin of an orange, if it were loose, might shift over the inner part of the orange all in one piece.” (Hancock, 1995, p. 10) Naturally, if Antarctica shifted south, and parts of the northern hemisphere moved out of the arctic zone, this implies other areas must have shifted into the arctic area and become colder. Indeed, this is what Hancock claims happened.
Perhaps an important issue is whether or not ECD conflicts with plate tectonics, a well-accepted theory in geology today. Plate tectonics is a relatively young theory, having only really emerged in the late 1960s. It traces its origins, however, to the concepts of continental drift and sea-floor spreading. According to continental drift, the continents can move freely and change their positions relative to one another, and major early evidence for this was the observation that continents such as South America and Africa seem to fit together like pieces of a jig-saw puzzle. Sea-floor spreading further hypothesizes that along a mid-oceanic ridge the sea-floor spreads out, causing the two sides of the ridge to move apart as if on conveyer belts. In the 1960s new evidence and ideas about the earth’s crust developed these hypotheses into the theory of plate tectonics, which states that the lithosphere is composed of a few large and several small plates that move slowly across the asthenosphere, and that intense geologic activity, such as volcanoes and earthquakes, occur at plate boundaries (Plummer and McGeary, 1996, p. 418). Neither continental drift nor plate tectonics, however, disallows the plates from moving in a unified manner at times. Just as in our puzzle analogy earlier, it is possible to move the puzzle in both a uniform and an uneven manner, one causing an even shift, and the other collisions between the pieces.
In his book, Hancock pulls together Hapgood’s theory and more recent evidence to set forth a manner by which Antarctica, now covered by snow and ice, could have in the relatively recent geologic past had a temperate climate and have been home to the lost civilization of Atlantis, now buried below thousands of feet of ice. The theory of ECD shows no inherent contradictions with plate tectonics, the now-accepted explanation of how the earth’s crust moves and changes. In fact, Hancock claims both can be true, and the ECD is a modification to an existing, yet incomplete theory.
The case is more complicated than it at first appears. Should we simply accept this addition to an established theory because it seemingly explains fascinating events in mythology and helps do away with anomalies in ancient maps? Hapgood (1958) and Hancock’s (1995) evidence bears further scrutiny before it is accepted as fact. Since the publication of Hancock’s (1995) book, numerous well-documented criticisms have appeared on the Internet, many of them originating in news- and talkgroups. Just as Hancock’s evidence deals with three main topics, so do the criticisms. In particular, Hapgood’s interpretations of the maps he used is suspect; most accepted evidence with respect to Antarctica contradicts Hancock and Hapgood; and Hancock’s claims about the northern hemisphere and the last ice age tend to be incorrect.
A review of the evidence relating to Antarctica leads to just as many problems. The first is the age of the Antarctic ice sheet. According to Hancock (1995), “researchers at the Carnegie Institute in Washington DC were able to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that great rivers carrying finegrained well-sorted sediments had indeed flowed in Antarctica until about 6000 years ago” (Hancock, 1995, p. 16). The bulk of core samples from Antarctica, however, show that there is “an abundance of evidence that demonstrates that the Antarctica ice cap has been around for the last 2 million years or more Ice core and other data from the Antarctica clearly show that it has been covered by an ice cap for the last 300,000 to 3 million or more years” (Heinrich, 1996, Fingerprints..). In fact, most geology text books, including Plummer and McGeary (1996), state the same. According to Hapgood, ECD caused Antarctica to move south and caused the end of the ice age in the northern hemisphere. The end of the last ice age was accompanied by a several hundred foot rise in ocean levels world-wide. However, Hapgood’s theory also claims that this shift south is what caused the Antarctic ice sheet: that is, Antarctica accumulated the ice-mass lost in the north. But in this case, there would be less of a rise in ocean levels (Heinrich, 1996, MOM and Oronteus...). In addition, the depression of the Antarctic landmass would further lower ocean levels, thus this claim on the part of Hapgood and Hancock disagrees with current knowledge about the end of the last ice age and the rise in sea levels. Furthermore, Antarctica is the world’s largest desert. It seems unlikely that the catastrophic build-up of the Antarctic ice sheet as proposed in Fingerprints of the Gods can be accounted for in such a short period of time, considering Antarctica’s climate.
Lack of evidence alone does not disprove a theory. So far, no logical inconsistencies have been found in the theory of ECD itself. Perhaps a ‘slip’ with respect to Antarctica did not occur when and where Hapgood claims, but it might still be possible to save ECD as a theory and tie it to plate tectonics. That too, however, is a losing proposition. Valid scientific theories in general have to do two things: explain current data, and answer questions that arise from the logical consequences of the theory. ECD runs into problems particularly with regard to the second requirement.
The first problem comes from the concept of isostacy, which is “the balance or equilibrium between adjacent blocks of crust resting on a plastic mantle” (Plummer and McGeary, 1996, p. 521). As mentioned above, isostatic rebound would affect the rise or fall of sea levels, and ECD provides no acceptable solutions to this problem. Einstein’s claim in Hapgood (1958) that at a certain critical point, a slip of the earth’s crust is bound to occur due to an unevenly distributed icemass also fails to take isostacy into consideration. The earth’s crust is not rigid, as Einstein stated. Instead, as ice builds up on a landmass, that landmass is depressed an appropriate amount to carry the load. Greenland provides an excellent example of this process (Dyson, 1963, p. 103) Also neglected by Hapgood and Hancock when considering icemasses is the fact that under high pressure, ice becomes plastic, that is, it will flow in a viscous fashion. As a result, glaciers are not static sheets of ice, but rather moving bodies of ice, that expand outward (continental) and downhill (alpine). When glaciers reach the sea, they don’t simply continue to build up: pieces break off and form icebergs. Hence, between isostacy and the tendency of ice to flow plastically, the critical point mentioned by Einstein is never reached.
Earth Crust Displacement appears to be unable to answer important geologic questions, and indeed, it seems to go against accepted geologic knowledge. Once the evidence is considered, Graham Hancock’s claim that ECD is compatible with plate tectonics no longer seems viable. Not only is Hapgood’s ECD theory lacking supporting geologic evidence, it actually contradicts tested geologic concepts.
After completing an analysis of Hapgood’s theory, ECD doesn’t seem to present a compelling argument. Its evidence can often be ignored, because it is simply wrong. The theory itself is not well thought-out: it fails to answer numerous geologic questions. Even proposing the theory is a logical leap of faith: moving from old world maps to a theory that Antarctica was located 30 degrees further north about 12,000 years ago has no logical basis. Hancock commits another logical fallacy by claiming ECD is correct because certain other possibilities seem absurd: “Are we therefore to assume the intervention of alien cartographers Or shall we think again about the implications of Hapgood’s theory ?” (Hancock, 1995, p. 19) Hancock just presents us with two equally absurd possibilities.
Hancock ends Fingerprints of the Gods with a warning of impending worldwide destruction and a second occurrence of Earth Crust Displacement. Indeed, his arguments are no more novel than those of the Neptunists and Catastrophists in the past. We may remain unconvinced by his theories, but at the same time, we have not actually found alternative answers to his questions. Perhaps someday there will be a newer, better theory to explain Hapgood’s ancient maps and truth about Atlantis. Until then, however, all we can do think critically about what we learn, ask questions, and ponder these mysteries whose answers have eluded humans for ages.
... crustal ... An encroaching crustal mantle ... The theory of Crustal displacement ... Atlantis, Mammoths, and Crustal Displacement ... Hapgood’s Theory of Earth Crust Displacement ... The Sinking of a Theory ... The Sinking of a Theory